Essentially human-centred thinking is based on the premise of brainstorming solutions to problems that are customer-centric. In other words, focusing on customers needs and wants, versus your own organisation's objectives or bottom line.
To achieve an end-result, there are three key stages: Inspiration (where you gather assumptions and do some research), Implementation (where you create something, like a prototype, to test on your real or potential customers), and finally, Iteration (where you test and test and re-iterate your solutions to make them better for your audience). That's a simplified overview for you. You can learn more here.
Human-centred design thinking can be a beautiful thing for companies to adopt. By interacting with customers openly - not just relying on prompted surveys to measure NPS for example, you might uncover some real gems. You might find that what people say they want isn't really true when you observe what they actually need, or how they experience your product or service.
Huge value could be gained by observing people in their natural habitat. Not just taking what they say verbatim, rather watching how they behave at home, at work, at a supermarket or with their families. This will enable you to gain an honest insight into how their habits are naturally formed and what their true motivations are.
These learning's could ultimately re-shape product innovation and certainly help marketers understand their customers more intimately and empathetically.